This report has evaluated vintage pipelines in reference to the historical evolution of the natural-gas pipeline system in the US, and the related evolution of steel and pipe making practices, and pipeline construction practices to meet the needs of that system. The potential for anomalies in this system has been characterized in reference to steel and pipe making practices, and pipeline construction practices. The potential importance of such anomalies to system integrity was assessed in terms of the response of anomalies to loadings experienced by pipelines. This analysis showed that the threat posed depends on a number of factors aside from the presence of an anomaly – the most important factors are the defect size, orientation, and severity, the mechanical properties of the pipe material, and the imposed loads. This report uses the term "defect" to identify anomalies that would be expected to fail at stress levels at the specified minimum yield stress and are becoming a practical concern.