- Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement
An agreement between federal and non-federal owners of hydroelectric generation on the Columbia 'River system, which resulted from the 1964 Columbia River Treaty. The PNCA governs the release of stored water to obtain the maximum usable energy and directs operations of the major generating facilities as if they belonged to a single owner.
- Paper Hearing
A process used by FERC to expedite decisions on the basis of a written record submitted directly to the Commission, instead of an oral hearing before an Administrative Law Judge.
- Parallel Path Flow
The flow of electric power on an electric system's transmission facilities resulting from scheduled electric power transfers between two other electric systems.
- Participating Collar
Unlike a standard collar, which requires the hedger to give up the benefit of favorable prices on one side of the band, a participating collar allows the hedger to participate in a portion of the price decline below the lower level of the band.
- Participating Swap
A swap which is structured to hedge floating rate exposure while allowing the hedger to retain some benefit from a favorable move in rates.
Synthetic chemicals (polychlorinated biphenyls), manufactured from 1929 to 1977, found in electrical equipment, such as voltage regulators and switches, and used to cool electrical capacitors and transformers. The manufacture of PCBs was banned in 1979.
- Peak Day Demand
The maximum daily quantity of gas used during a specified period, such as a year.
- Peak Demand
The maximum load during a specified period of time.
- Peak/Energy Exchange
Exchange of peaking capacity for off-peak energy between two or more systems.
- Peak Load
The maximum load consumed or produced by a unit or group of units in a stated period of time.
- Peak Load Plant or Peaker Unit
A plant usually housing low-efficiency, quick response steam units, gas turbines, diesels, or pumped-storage hydroelectric equipment normally used during the maximum load periods. Peakers are characterized by quick start times and generally high operating costs, but low capital costs.
- Peak Responsibility
The load of a customer, a group of customers or part of a system at the time of occurrence of the system peak load.
- Peak Shaving
Methods to reduce the peak demand for gas or .electricity.
- Peaking Capacity
Capacity of generating equipment normally reserved for operation during the hours of highest daily, weekly, or seasonal loads. Some generating equipment may be operated at certain times as peaking capacity and at other times to serve loads on an around-the-clock basis.
- Peaking Supply
A supply of natural gas that is available to meet peak demand. Peaking supply is generally associated with seasonal demand, i.e., colder than normal days. Peaking supply may be provided out of storage facilities, from LNG facilities, from Btu enhancement through the injection of propane or other high Btu substances, or other means.
- Peaking Supply Service
A service that entitles a buyer to a certain quantity of natural gas delivered at the buyer's request during peak periods.
- Performance Based Rate
A method of establishing rates which departs from the cost-of-service standard in setting just and reasonable utility rates. Performance Based Rates generally afford utilities the opportunity to increase profits by exceeding targets for efficiency and cost savings. This type of methodology purports to streamline regulatory process by replacing rate hearings with annual, accounting-type reviews. Cost of service studies might not be required at all, once initial rates are fixed.
- Period Hours
Number of hours a unit was in the active state. A unit generally enters the active state on its service date.
A measure of the ease with which a fluid flows through rock in response to pressure differences (measured in darcys). Permeability implies that there is some degree of porosity in the rock.
A complex mixture of various hydrocarbons existing in the liquid state found in natural underground reservoirs, often associated with gas. Petroleum includes fuel oil No.2, No.4, No.5, No. 6; topped crude; kerosene; and jet fuel.
- Petroleum Coke
A final product, often called a "waste product," of the petroleum refining process, which is the output of the refinery after all of the higher distillates and oils have been distilled from crude oil, leaving a product that has the appearance of coal, and can be found in various types of petroleum coke, depending on the size of the output product, including "sponge, " "shot," and "fluid" coke. Petroleum coke may be calcined for specialty uses, including anode production or it may be burned as fuel in various process, ranging from power plants to cement kilns, which is currently the largest single use of petroleum coke. The fuel product is typically high in sulfur (although there are exceptions), low in volatile matter, low in ash and low in moisture. Heating value is typically 14,200 Btu/lb.
- Petroleum Industry Data Exchange
API's Subcommittee serving as an action group for the oil and gas industry.
- Photovoltaic Conversion
The process of converting the sun's light energy directly into electric energy, through the use of photovoltaic cells.
A cylindrical device that is inserted into a pipeline to clean or monitor the pipeline wall.
An entity engaged in the transportation of natural gas in interstate or intrastate commerce. Also, the actual facility itself.
- Pipeline Day
An arbitrary 24-hour period of time established by a pipeline for the operation of its system, often beginning at seven or -eight o'clock in the morning.
- Pipeline Interconnection
A point at which facilities of two or more pipelines interconnect.
- Pipeline Quality
Gas See GAS, MARKETABLE.
- Pipeline System
A collection of pipeline facilities used to transport natural gas from source of supply to burner tip, including gathering, transmission, or distribution lines, treating or processing plants, compressor stations, and related facilities.
- Plain Vanilla
A term used to describe the most basic form of a single-currency, constant-notional-principal interest rate swap in which fixed-rate cash flows are exchanged for floating-rate payments.
- Planned Derating
Advance reduction in capacity required by scheduled removal of a component for repairs with a predetermined duration.
- Planned Outage
The removal of a unit from service to perform work on specific components that is scheduled well in advance and has a predetermined duration (e.g., annual overhaul, inspections, testing).
A facility at which are located prime movers, electric generators, and auxiliary equipment for converting mechanical, chemical, and/or nuclear energy into electric energy. A plant may contain more than one type of prime mover. Electric utility plants exclude facilities that satisfy the definition of a qualifying facility under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. A station.
- Plant Factor
The ratio of the average generation and capacity of a plant during a specified period of time, expressed as a percentage. Sometimes called capacity factor.
- Plant Thermal Reduction (PTR)
The Btu equivalent of the liquid products extracted from natural gas by a processing plant, plus the natural gas used as plant fuel to extract those liquids, plant flare and other losses. When expressed as a volume (in MCf), plant thermal reduction is referred to as Plant Volume Reduction (PVR).
- Plant-Use Electricity
The -electric energy used in the operation of a plant. This energy total is subtracted from the gross energy production of the plant; for reporting purposes the plant energy production is then reported as a net figure. The energy required for pumping-storage plants is, by definition, subtracted, and the energy production for these plants is then reported as a net figure.
- Point of Unbundling
The farthest point upstream on a pipeline's system (usually in or contiguous to the production area) when transportation is unbundled from the sale and the point at which title to the gas passes.
- Point or Tick
The smallest monetary unit of change in a futures price.
- Point-to-Point Service
(Similar to the concept of contract path) Point-to- point service provides a -customer the ability to use only that portion of a transmission owner's integrated facility to input power at a specified point and take out the power at a specified point regardless of actual flow.
Poolco refers to a specialized, centrally dispatched spot market power pool that functions as a short term market. It establishes the short term market clearing price and provides a system of long term transmission compensation contracts. It is regulated to provide open access, comparable service and cost recovery. A poolco would make ancillary generation services, including load following, spinning reserve, backup power, and reactive power, available to all market participants on comparable terms. In addition, the Poolco provides settlement mechanisms when differences in contracted volumes exist between buyers and sellers of energy and capacity.
- Pooling Point
The point (either physical or theoretical) at which gas is aggregated from many receipt points in order to serve several contracts without tying a specific receipt point to a specific contract. "Paper pooling" refers to aggregation as a matter of accounting, as opposed to physical pooling in a supply basin.
The presence of spaces (pores) between the grains of sand making up a rock formation. Porosity is measured by dividing pore volume by total rock volume.
Any entrance to a mine.
An internal or external Web site that functions as an informational hub, aggregating links that connect the portal's users to various information sources. Portals are typically positioned as starting points for users.
In futures trading, one's status as long or short.
- Post-Contingency Operating Procedures
Operating procedures that are invoked by the system operator to mitigate or alleviate system problems after a contingency has occurred.
A term usually meant to imply both capacity and energy. The rate at which energy is transferred. Electrical energy is usually measured in watts.
- Power Authorities
Quasi governmental agencies that perform all or some of the functions of a public utility.
- Power Factor
The fraction of power actually used by a customer's electrical equipment compared to the total apparent power supplied, usually expressed as a percentage. Power factors apply only to alternating current circuits; direct current circuits always exhibit a power factor of 100 percent. A power factor indicates how far a customer's electrical equipment, causes the electric current delivered at the customer's site to be out of phase with the voltage.
- Power Factor Adjustment
A calculation or charge on industrial or commercial customers' bills reflecting an adjustment in billing demand based on customer's actual metered power factor. If the power factor stays within a specified range, there is no adjustment.
- Power Marketing Administrations
Congress established five federal power marketing administrations (PMAs) to sell hydroelectric power generated by federal dams and power plants. These PMAs and their headquarters are:
- Power Plant
An industrial facility that has the production of kilowatt hours of power as its primary product. The power is produced from a raw material such as oil, coal, or nuclear. A plant that converts mechanical energy to electric energy. (See generation, real power, and reactive power.)
- Power Pool
An entity established to coordinate short-term operations to maintain system stability and achieve least cost dispatch. The dispatch provides backup supplies, short-term excess sales, reactive power support, and spinning reserve. Historically, some of these services were provided on an unpriced basis as part of the members' utility franchise obligations. Coordinating short-term operations includes the aggregation and firming of power from various generators, arranging exchanges between generators, and -establishing (or enforcing) the rules of conduct for wholesale transactions. The pool may own, manage and/or operate the transmission lines ("wires") or be an independent entity that manages the transactions between entities. Often, the power pool is not meant to provide transmission access and pricing, or settlement mechanisms if differences between contracted volumes among buyers and sellers exist.
- Prearranged Release
An arrangement set between a shipper releasing firm transportation capacity and a prospective acquiring shipper.
A legal directive that gives publicly owned utilities and cooperatives priority access to federal power.
- Preference Customers
Publicly owned utilities and non-profit cooperatives which by law have preference over investor-owned systems and industrial customers for the purchase of power from federal projects.
- Preferred Voltage Zone or Range
The range of voltages within which utilization equipment will provide optimum performance. Voltage control equipment and distribution circuits have been designed and operate to maintain voltages within the Preferred Zone limits so to produce optimum operation of customer equipment. (See Chart.)
- Preliminary Determination
Conditional approval granted by FERC after the review of all the terms and conditions of a proposed -construction project.
In the context of sales of natural gas, a price differential reflecting differences in the quality of the product, services, or relationships, particularly for long-term firm commitments as opposed to spot sales.
- Premium Customer
A customer that has a high value to the seller, such as a customer that takes at a consistent high load factor, or that pays a high incremental or premium price for the product.
- Preparation Plant
A facility which crushes, sizes and washes coal prior to shipment.
- Pressure, Absolute (PSIA)
Pressure above that of a perfect vacuum; the sum of gauge pressure and atmospheric pressure.
- Pressure, Atmospheric
The pressure of the weight of air and water vapor on the earth's surface. The average atmospheric pressure at sea level has been defined for scientific purposes as 14.696 pounds per square inch. The American Gas Association, the FERC and all other federal agencies have adopted 14.73 pounds per square inch as the standard pressure base.
- Pressure, Base
A standard pressure to which measurements of a volume of natural gas are referred.
- Pressure Base
The factor for pressure used in determining a gas's volume, expressed in terms of pounds of pressure per square inch that the gas would exert on the walls of a one-cubic-foot container.
The amount of money or consideration-in-kind for which a service is bought, sold, or offered for sale.
- Price Cap
A method of setting a utility distribution company's rates whereby a maximum allowable price level is established by regulators, flexibility in individual pricing is allowed, and where efficiency gains can be encouraged and captured by the company.
- Price Majeure
The process of retrading interruptible gas which is the result of significant upward or downward price adjustments.
- Price To Earnings Ration (P/E Ratio)
Ratio is calculated by dividing the price per share of common stock by earnings per share over the most recent 12 months. Measured monthly at the enterprise level, it shows the amount investors are willing to pay for $1 of an enterprise's current earnings.
- Pricing Differential
The difference between a pipeline's actual gas supply contract costs and a surrogate, such as an index price, for a deemed market price.
- Primary Market
Primary markets are the markets where new securities are bought and sold. They act as the conduit through which new capital or funds are acquired.
- Primary Recovery
The recovery of oil and/or natural gas by any method (natural flow or artificial lift) that may be employed to produce them through a single well bore; the fluid enters the well bore by the action of native reservoir energy or gravity.
- Prime Mover
The engine, turbine, water wheel or similar machine that drives an electric generator; or, for reporting purposes, a device that converts energy to electricity directly (e.g., photovoltaic solar and fuel cells).
- Processing Plant
A facility in which raw natural gas from the wellhead is made to meet pipeline quality specifications and prepared for sale to consumers by reducing or removing undesirable impurities and extracting commercially desirable non-methane hydrocarbons from the gas stream.
A working interest owner of an oil and/or gas well. A producer may sell its share of production itself through the operator of the well, or through another producer.
- Producer Demand Charge
Fixed charge paid by customers to producers in order to guarantee the availability of supplies.
The income remaining after all business expenses are paid.
- Project-Financed Pipeline
A pipeline funded by pledging expected revenues to cover the debt.
- Propane (C3H8)
A hydrocarbon substance consisting of molecules composed of three carbon atoms and eight hydrogen atoms, used primarily in residential and commercial heating and cooling, and as transportation fuel and petrochemical feedstock.
- Propylene (C3H6)
A hydrocarbon substance consisting of molecules composed of three carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms, used primarily in residential and commercial heating and cooling, and as a transportation fuel and petrochemical feedstock.
A methodology to allocate a commodity such as pipeline capacity or natural gas supply under which the commodity is split among those seeking to obtain it based on a factor, such as quantity requested or numbers of individuals (per capita).
- Provider of Last Resort
A legal obligation (traditionally given to utilities) to provide service to a customer where competitors have decided they do not want that customer's business.
A calculated reading or value which is updated in real time and which is used as a tie line flow in the ACE equation but for which no physical energy metering actually exists. The integrated value is used as a metered MWh value for interchange accounting purposes.
- Public Authority Service to Public Authorities
Public authority service includes electricity supplied and services rendered to municipalities or divisions or agencies of State or Federal governments, under special contracts or agreements or service classifications applicable only to public authorities.
- Public Street and Highway Lighting
Public street and highway lighting includes electricity supplied and services rendered for the purposes of lighting streets, highways, parks, and other public places; or for traffic or other signal system service, for municipalities, or other divisions or agencies of State or Federal governments.
- Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA or 35 Act)
A law enacted in 1935 to control the corporate monopoly abuses and misconduct arising from utility market power and insufficient regulatory resources to mitigate it. PUHCA defines allowable structures by which utilities may organize and vests regulatory authority over various financial and corporate matters with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The National Energy Policy Act of 1992 amended several sections of PUHCA, enabling electric utilities to compete in the independent power market without becoming subject to its terms.
- Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA)
Federal law that requires utilities to purchase electricity from qualified independent power producers at a price that reflects what costs the utilities avoid by buying power from the QF rather than procuring the capacity and energy by another means (See avoided cost.) Portions of the act were designed to encourage the development of small-scale cogeneration and renewable resources.
- Pumped-Storage Hydroelectric Plant
A plant that generates electric energy by using water pumped during off-peak periods into an elevated storage reservoir. At peak periods, when additional generating capacity is needed, the water is released from the elevated storage reservoir to turbine generators in a power plant at a lower elevation. A hydroelectric power plant that uses both pumped water and natural stream flow to produce electricity is a Combined Pumped-Storage Hydroelectric Plant.
- Pumping Hours
The total number of hours a turbine/generator unit was operated as a pump/motor set (for hydro and pumped storage units only).
- Purchased Power Adjustment
A clause in a rate schedule that provides for adjustments to the bill when energy from another electric system is acquired and it varies from a specified unit base amount.
- Pure Pumped-Storage Hydroelectric Plant
A plant that produces power only from water that has previously been pumped to an upper reservoir.
Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978.
- Put Option
The right but not the obligation to sell the underlying assets at an agreed upon price (strike or exercise price) on or before the expiration date. The person who buys a put option expects prices to fall. If the price does not fall, the purchaser loses the price of the put but does not have to exercise, or use it.